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Medical References

Check out the references below for some in depth information to back up what we have said on our site.

Research on Dental Amalgam

The World Health Organization (WHO) has listed dental amalgams as among the products containing mercury which it describes as “one of the 10 groups of chemicals of major public health concern.” WHO describes mercury on its website as a “naturally occurring element that is found in air, water and soil” and is “harmful to humans, especially pregnant women, infants and children.”

Gordon HP, Cordon LD: Reduction in mercury vapour levels in Seattle dental offices. J Dent Res Abstract 1092 57A:347, 1981. Female dentists had a higher rate of spontaneous abortions than a control of female medical personnel or the rest of the population. Peri-natal mortality rate for the female dentists was significantly higher than for the rest of the population. (19.5/1000 compared to 7.5/1000 Connections between oral and systemic health

Nylander et al. 4th Symposium Epidemiology in Occupational Health. Como Italy September 1985. In a study of 9,241 people 3454 were male dentists 1125 female dentists, 4662 female dental nurses. A two-fold increased risk of glioblastomas for the dental personnel compared to the rest of the population.

Ship II, Shapiro IM: Mercury poisoning in dental practice. Compendium Continuing Education 4: 107-110, 1983. 298 dentists. 30% of the high mercury dentists had polyneuropathies. No polyneuropathies were detected in the control group. The high mercury group had mild visuo-graphic dysfunction; they also had more symptom-distress than did the control group. The findings suggest that the use of mercury as a restorative material is a health risk for dentists.

Boyd et al. The American Physiological Society Nov 1991. Mercury from dental “silver” tooth fillings impairs sheep kidney function.

M.J. Vimy, Y. Takahashi, and F.L. Lorscheider. Am.J. Physio. 258 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 27) R939-R945. 1990. Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury (203 Hg) released from dental amalgam fillings. All tissues displayed Hg accumulation. Highest concentrations of Hg from amalgam in the adult occurred in the kidney and liver. In the fetus the highest amalgam concentrations appeared in the liver and pituitary gland. Dental amalgam usage as a tooth restorative material in pregnant women should be reconsidered.

NHMRC (National Health and Research Council – Australia). Endorsed 24 October 2002. Dental Amalgam – filling you in. During pregnancy, placement of new amalgam fillings or removal of old ones is not recommended, because the levels of mercury in the blood tends to rise in these situations. The mercury can cross the placenta and enter the bloodstream of the fetus. Women who are breast feeding should also avoid have amalgam fillings inserted or removed. Amalgam is now generally avoided for filling children’s teeth. Growing children tend to be more sensitive to the effects of exposure to any chemical substance in their environment. People with kidney disease may be more concerned than others to minimize exposure to mercury. If you decide to have amalgam fillings replaced, your exposure to mercury can be reduced by using a rubber shielding device called a “dental dam” and having extra suction during the removal. Dentists can also cut away rather than drill out the amalgam filling, to help reduce exposure to mercury.

Potential Risks of Fluoride

As you can see from the graph above. There may be little evidence to support that fluoridated water actually helps prevent tooth decay. Tooth decay rates have fallen globally since 1970 regardless of fluoridated water. Perhaps there are other factors involved.

Menoyo 2005; de la Sota 1997; Rigalli 1995, 1990. Not only have researchers confirmed that spikes in blood fluoride levels increase glucose levels, but they have found that the effect occurs at just 95 ppb – less than 10 times the fluoride level that can enter blood after fluoride-gel treatment, and exceeded on a daily basis by some children using fluoride toothpaste.

Zakrzewska 2002, 2006. Polish researchers reported that low levels of fluoride can damage sperm in ways that could impair male fertility. Links between oral health and systemic health.

Shahed 1986; Whitford 1987 .Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) reported that the toxic effects from short-term spikes in blood fluoride levels are not limited to the kidney. It is conceivable that normal ingestion of F following an APF application could alter several metabolic processes.

Potential Risks of Fluoride

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2.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Recommendations for using fluoride to prevent and control dental caries in the United States. Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review 50(RR14):1-42.

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3.L Goldemberg – La Semana Med 28:628 (1921) – cited in Wilson RH, DeEds F -“The Synergistic Action Of Thyroid On Fluoride Toxicity” Endocrinology 26:851 (1940).

4.G Litzka – “Die experimentellen Grundlagen der Behandlung des Morbus Basedow und der Hyperthyreose mittels Fluortyrosin” Med Wochenschr 63:1037-1040 (1937)

5.Galletti P, et. al. 1958. “Effect of fluorine on thyroidal iodine metabolism in hyperthyroidism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology,” 18(10):1102-1110. 1958

6.Susheela AK, et al. “Excess fluoride ingestion and thyroid hormone derangements in children living in New Delhi, India.” Fluoride, 38:98-108. 2005. National Research Council. “Fluoride in drinking water: a scientific review of EPA’s standards.” National Academies Press, Washington D.C. 2006.

7.National Research Council. (2006). Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards. National Academies Press, Washington D.C. p236.

8.Collins TFX, Sprando RL. (2005). Fluoride–toxic and pathologic effects: Review of current literature on some aspects of fluoride toxicity. Reviews in Food and Nutrition Toxicity. 105-41.

9.Whitford G. (1996). The Metabolism and Toxicity of Fluoride. 2nd Revised Edition. Karger: Basel. p 30. Hongslo CF, Hongslo JK, Holland RI. (1980). Fluoride sensitivity of cells from different organs. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 46:73-77.

10.Farkas G, et al. (1983). The fluoride content of drinking water and menarcheal age. Acta Univ Szeged Acta Biol. 29(1-4):159-168.

11.Kunz D, et al. (1999). A new concept for melatonin deficit: on pineal calcification and melatonin excretion. Neuropsychopharmacology 21(6):765-72.

12.Luke J. (2001). Fluoride deposition in the aged human pineal gland. Caries Res. 35(2):125-128.

13.Luke J. (1997). The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Surrey, Guildford.

14.Mahlberg R, et al. (2009). Degree of pineal calcification (DOC) is associated with polysomnographic sleep measures in primary insomnia patients. Sleep Med. 10(4):439-45.

15.National Research Council. (2006). Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards. National Academies Press, Washington D.C.

16.Schlesinger ER, et al. (1956). Newburgh-Kingston caries fluorine study. XIII. Pediatric findings after ten years. J Am Dent Assoc. 52(3):296-306.

17.Gupta SK, et al. (2001). Compensatory hyperparathyroidism following high fluoride ingestion – a clinico – biochemical correlation. Indian Pediatr. 38(2):139-46.

18.Gutteridge DH, et al. (2002). A randomized trial of sodium fluoride (60 mg) +/- estrogen in postmenopausal osteoporotic vertebral fractures: increased vertebral fractures and peripheral bone loss with sodium fluoride; concurrent estrogen prevents peripheral loss, but not vertebral fractures. Osteoporosis International 13:158-70.

19.Haguenauer D, et al. (2000). Fluoride for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporotic fractures: a meta-analysis. Osteoporosis International 11:727-38.

20.Sogaard CH, et al. (1994). Marked decrease in trabecular bone quality after five years of sodium fluoride therapy– assessed by biomechanical testing of iliac crest bone biopsies in osteoporotic patients. Bone 15: 393-99.

21.Schnitzler CM, et al. (1990). Bone fragility of the peripheral skeleton during fluoride therapy for osteoporosis. Clinical Orthopedics (261):268-75.

22.Riggs BL, et al. (1990). Effect of Fluoride treatment on the Fracture Rates in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis. New England Journal of Medicine 322:802-809.

23.Bayley TA, et al. (1990). Fluoride-induced fractures: relation to osteogenic effect. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 5(Suppl 1):S217-22.

24.Orcel P, et al. (1990). Stress fractures of the lower limbs in osteoporotic patients treated with fluoride. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 5(Suppl 1): S191-4.

25.Lou DD, et al. (2012). [Alteration of mitochondrial distribution and gene expression of fission 1 protein in cortical neurons of rats with chronic fluorosis]. [Article in Chinese]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 41(4):243-7.

26.Pereira M, et al. (2011). Memory impairment induced by sodium fluoride is associated with changes in brain monoamine levels. Neurotox Res. 19(1):55-62.

27.Basha PM, et al. (2011). Fluoride toxicity and status of serum thyroid hormones, brain histopathology, and learning memory in rats: a multigenerational assessment. Biol Trace Elem Res. 144(1-3):1083-94.

28.Zhu W, et al. (2011). Effects of fluoride on synaptic membrane fluidity and PSD-95 expression level in rat hippocampus. Biol Trace Elem Res. 139(2):197-203.

29.Liu YJ, et al. (2011). Increased level of apoptosis in rat brains and SH-SY5Y cells exposed to excessive fluoride–a mechanism connected with activating JNK phosphorylation. Toxicol Lett. 204(2-3):183-9.

30.Ge Y, et al. (2011). Proteomic analysis of brain proteins of rats exposed to high fluoride and low iodine. Arch. Toxicol. 85:27-33.

31.Chouhan S, et al. (2010). Fluoride-induced changes in haem biosynthesis pathway, neurological variables and tissue histopathology of rats. J Appl Toxicol. 30(1):63-73.

32.Gui CZ, et al. (2010). Changes of learning and memory ability and brain nicotinic receptors of rat offspring with coal burning fluorosis. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 32(5):536-41.

33.Liu YJ, et al. (2010). Alterations of nAChRs and ERK1/2 in the brains of rats with chronic fluorosis and their connections with the decreased capacity of learning and memory. Toxicol Lett. 192(3):324-9.

34.Kaur T, et al. (2009). Effect of concurrent chronic exposure of fluoride and aluminum on rat brain. Drug & Chem.Toxicol. 32(3): 215-21.

35.Niu R, et al. (2009). Decreased learning ability and low hippocampus glutamate in offspring rats exposed to fluoride and lead. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 28(2):254-8.

36.Flora SJ, et al. (2009). Co-exposure to arsenic and fluoride on oxidative stress, glutathione linked enzymes, biogenic amines and DNA damage in mouse brain. J Neurol Sci. 285(1-2):198-205.

37.Reddy KP, et al. (2009). Protective effects of selenium on fluoride induced alterations in certain enzymes in brain of mice. J Environ Biol. 30(5 Suppl):859-64.

38.Bhatnagar M, et al. (2006). Biochemical changes in brain and other tissues of young adult female mice from fluoride in their drinking water. Fluoride 39(4):280-84.

39.Ge Y, et al. (2005). Comet assay of DNA damage in brain cells of adult rats exposed to high fluoride and low iodine. Fluoride 38:209-14.

40.Freni SC. (1994). Exposure to high fluoride concentrations in drinking water is associated with decreased birth rates. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 42:109-121.

41.Hao P, et al. (2010). [Effect of fluoride on human hypothalamus-hypophysis-testis axis hormones]. [Article in Chinese]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 39(1):53-5.

42.Shulman JD, Wells LM. (1997). Acute fluoride toxicity from ingesting home-use dental products in children, birth to 6 years of age. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 57: 150-8.

43.Watson WA, et al. (2003). 2002 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 21:353-421.

44.Whitford GM. (1987a). Fluoride in dental products: safety considerations. Journal of Dental Research 66: 1056-60.

45.Whitford GM, et al. (1987b). Topical fluorides: effects on physiologic and biochemical processes. Journal of Dental Research 66(5):1072-8.

46.Vasant RA, Narasimhacharya AV. (2013). A multigrain protein enriched diet mitigates fluoride toxicity. Journal of Food Science Technology 50(3):528-34.

47.Vasant RA, Narasimhacharya AVRL. (2012). Ameliorative effect of tamarind leaf on fluoride-induced metabolic alterations. Environ Health Prev Med. DOI 10.1007/s12199-012-0277-7

48.Vasant RA, et al. (2010). Therapeutic benefits of glibenclamide in fluoride intoxicated diabetic rats. Fluoride 43( 2): 141-9.

49.Garcia-Montalvo EA, et al. (2009). Fluoride exposure impairs glucose tolerance via decreased insulin expression and oxidative stress. Toxicology 263: 75-83.

50.Chehoud KA, et al. (2008). Effects of fluoride intake on insulin sensitivity and insulin signal transduction. Fluoride 41(4): 270-5.

51.Birkner E, et al. (2006). Influence of sodium fluoride and caffeine on the concentration of fluoride ions, glucose, and urea in blood serum and activity of protein metabolism enzymes in rat liver. Biol Trace Elem Res. 112(2):169-74.

52.Grucka-Mamczar E, et al. (2004). [Activities of some enzymes and concentration of ammonia in serum of rats with fluoridehyperglycemia]. [Article in Polish]. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 50 Suppl 1:36-41.

53.Chlubek D, et al. (2003). Activity of pancreatic antioxidative enzymes and malondialdehyde concentrations in rats with hyperglycemia caused by fluoride intoxication. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 17:57-60.

54.Boros I, et al. (1998). Fluoride intake, distribution, and bone content in diabetic rats consuming fluoridated drinking water. Fluoride 31(1):33-42.

55.Varadacharyulu NC, Rao PR. (1997). Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in fluoride-treated rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 35(8):906-8.

56.Rigalli A, et al. (1992). Bone mass increase and glucose tolerance in rats chronically treated with sodium fluoride. Bone & Mineral 16:101-08.

57.Rigalli A, et al. (1990). Inhibitory effect of fluoride on the secretion of insulin. Calcif Tissue Int 46:333-8. 58.Shahed AR, et al. (1986). Effect of F on rat serum insulin levels in vivo. Journal of Dental Research 65:756.

59.Suketa Y, Asao Y, Kanamoto Y, et al. (1985). Changes in adrenal function as a possible mechanism for elevation of serum glucose by a single large dose of fluoride. Tox Appl Pharm 80: 199-205. 60.

60.Avena, Nicole M.; Rada, Pedro and Hoebel, Bartley G. “Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake”. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 2008;32(1):20-39. Epub 18 May, 2007

61.Drewnowski, A., et al., Taste responses and preferences for sweet high-fat foods: evidence for opioid involvement. Physiol Behav, 1992. 51(2): p. 371-9.

Research into Breathing Dysfunction

Dr Adelola et al. from the Department of Otolaryngology at Limerick University Hospital in Ireland investigated the effectiveness of the Buteyko technique on nasal symptoms of patients with asthma. Small clinical study of Buteyko Method at Limerick Regional Hospital shows 70% reduction of Rhinitis in Asthma

NIH Study: Buteyko  breathing technique improvements in asthma symptoms and reductions in reliever medications. A report by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, AHRQ, for the United States Institute of Health (NIH) finds Buteyko delivers substantial reductions in symptoms and medication usage for asthmatics.
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Clinical Review: Sleep apnoea – A survey of breathing retraining
Read the article as a PDF here: Clinical Review Sleep apnoea – A Survey of breathing retraining ANJ October 2012
Asthma misunderstood and misdiagnosed Thoracic society press release March 2007

Does the World’s Bestselling Asthma Drug Sometimes Kill the Patients it is Supposed to Help?

Are asthma medications and management related to deaths from asthma?  Abramson MJ et al and the Victorian Asthma Mortality Study Group AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE VOL 163 2001
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Buteyko Breathing Technique for asthma: an effective intervention
Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association, 12-December-2003, Vol 116 No 1187

Cardiovascular Disease and Health-Care Utilization in Snorers: a Population Survey.
Andrea Dunai, MD, Andras P. Keszei, MD, PhD, Maria S. Kopp, MD,PhD, Colin M. Shapiro, MBBCh, PhD, FRCPC, Istvan Mucsi, MD, PhD, Marta Novak, MD, PhD SLEEP Volume 31, Issue 03, Pages 411-416

Summary of risks from the use of Long Acting Beta Agonists (LABA) with comment from doctors at Gisborne Hospital and links to NZMJ discussion.

1 Salpeter SR, Ormiston TM, Salpeter EE. Meta-analysis: Respiratory tolerance to regular
agonist use in patients with asthma. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140:802–13.

2 Spitzer WO et al., The use of beta-agonists and the risk of death and near death from asthma. N Engl J Med. 1992 Feb 20;326(8):560-1

3 McHugh, P., Aitcheson, F., Duncan, B. and Houghton, F. Buteyko Breathing Technique for asthma: an effective intervention New Zealand Medical Journal 12 December 2003 Vol. 116 No 1187 

4 McHugh, P., Aitcheson, F., Duncan, B. and Houghton, F. Buteyko breathing technique and asthma in children: a case series New Zealand Medical Journal 19 May 2006, Vol. 119 No 1234 

5 Bowler, S.D., Green, A. and Mitchell, C.A. Buteyko breathing techniques in asthma: a blinded randomised controlled trial   Medical Journal of Australia 1998; 169: 575-578

6 Opat A.J., Cohen M.M., Bailey M.J., Abramson M.J. A clinical trial of the Buteyko Breathing Technique in asthma as taught by a video. J Asthma 2000; 37(7):557-64

7 Cooper, S., Osborne, J., Newton, S., Harrison, V., Thompson Coon, J.,  Lewis S. and Tattersfield, A. Effect of two breathing exercises (Buteyko and pranayama) in asthma: a randomised controlled trial Thorax 2003; 58:674-679

8 Slader, C.A., Reddel, H.K., Spencer, L.M., Belousova, E.G., Armour, C.L., Bosnic-Anticevich, S.Z.,  Thien, F.C.K.,  Jenkins, C.R. Double blind randomised controlled trial of two different breathing techniques in the management of asthma Thorax 2006;61:651-656

9 Cowie, R.L., Conley, D.P.,  Underwood, M.F.,  Reader   P.G.,  A randomised controlled trial of the Buteyko technique as an adjunct to conventional management of asthma Respiratory Medicine May 2008 (Vol. 102, Issue 5, Pages 726-732)

Buteyko endorsed by British guideline on the management of asthma
The British Guideline on the Management of Asthma 2008 grants permission for British health professionals to recommend Buteyko, stating that the method "may be considered to help patients control the symptoms of asthma". The guideline also grades clinical research on Buteyko with a ‘B’ classification – indicating that high-quality supporting clinical trials are available.

Thoracic Society & Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). British Guideline on the Management of Asthma. Guideline No. 101. Edinburgh:SIGN; 5 May, 2008.  Revised June 2009.
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Links between oral health and systemic health

Gurenlian, J. (2006). Inflammation: The relationship between oral health and systemic disease. Colgate Professional. Retrieved April 30, 2013,

McNamara, S. (2007). Oral health-systemic health: What is the true connection? Canadian Dental Association, 73(3), 211-216. Retrieved April 30, 2013, 73/issue-3/211.pdf

Astroth, J. (2009). The links between oral and systemic health. Clinical Advisor. Retrieved April 30, 2013,

Seidel-Bittke, D. (2004). The link between oral health and systemic health: A review. Dentistry Today. Retrieved April 30, 2013,

Dental care and diabetes. Web MD. Retrieved April 30, 2013,

Gillis, M. (2011). Canadian Diabetes Association. Retrieved April 30, 2013,–Spring_2011–M.Gillis_.pdf

The HPV connection. Oral Cancer Foundation. Retrieved April 30, 2013,

Melnick, M. (2011). HPV linked to more oral cancers than smoking. Time. Retrieved April 30, 2013,

Genital HPV infection – Fact Sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 30, 2013,

Dranoff, G. (2004). Cytokines in cancer pathogenesis and cancer therapy. Nature. Retrieved April 30, 2013,

Oral cancer. Web MD. Retrieved April 30, 2013, health/guide/oral-cancer

________. (2007). Heart disease and oral health: role of oral bacteria in heart plaque. Harvard Health Publications. Retrieved April 30, 2013,

54 W: Tel: 1800 773 757 E:

________. (2012). How may dental health be linked to cardiovascular disease? Simply Health. Retrieved April 30, 2013,

________. (2012). Colgate. Retrieved April 30, 2013, Health/article/Cardiovascular.cvsp

Mojon,P.(2002).Oralhealthandrespiratoryinfection.CanadianDentalAssociation,68(6),340- 345. Retrieved April 30, 2013,

Bertolo, M., Ishi, E., Kirkwood, K., Onofre, M., Rossa, C. (2008). Periodontal condition in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Scielo Brasil, 22(1). Retrieved April 30, 2013, http://www

Namiot, D.B., Namiot, Z., Kemona, A., Go?ebiewska, M.(2006). Peptic ulcers and oral health status. PubMed, 51, 153-155. Retrieved April 30, 2013,

Melkonyan, R. How can rheumatoid arthritis affect your oral health. Article Sphere. Retrieved April 30, 2013, Y our-Oral-Health/168840

Kelsey, J., Lamster, I. (2008). Influence of musculoskeletal conditions on oral health among older adults. PubMed, 98(7): 1177–1183. Retrieved April 30, 2013,

Greenfield, P. (2010). Peptic ulcers and your mouth. Delta Dental. Retrieved April 30, 2013,,Delta141

________. (2012). Gastrointestinal. Colgate. Retrieved April 30, 2013, Effects/article/Gastrointestinal.cvsp

________. (2012). Global Journal of Health Science, 4(2). Retrieved April 30, 2013, http://www

Woo, S.B., Hellstein, J., Kalmar, J. (2006). Systematic review: bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis of the jaws. American Association of Endodontics. 144:753-761. Retrieved April 30, 2013,

________. (2010). Pregnant women with gum disease are more likely to have premature babies. Daily Mail Online. Retrieved April 30, 2013, 1257819/Pregnant-women-gum-disease-likely-premature-babies.html

Teeth and pregnancy. Better Health. Retrieved April 30, 2013,

Bisphosphonate-associated jaw osteonecrosis. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved April 30, 2013, http://www osteonecrosis.html

________. (2009). What is osteonecrosis? Fast facts: An easy-to-read series of publications for the public. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Retrieved April 30, 2013,

Mountjoy, P. (2013). Oral health care and psychology are intertwined. Washington Times. Retrieved April 30, 2013, are-intertwined/

Barnett, M. (2006).The oral-systemic disease connection: An update for the practicing dentist. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 137, 55-56. Retrieved April 30, 2013,


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